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Tabel comparativ al speciilor Homo

Specie Perioada de existență (mii de ani) Habitat Înălțime (adult) Greutate (adult) Capacitate craniană (cm³) Înregistrare fosilă Descoperire/
publicare
H. habilis
apartenența la Homo este incertă
2.100–1.500[1] Africa de Est 110–140 cm 33–55 kg 510–660 multe 1960/1964
H. rudolfensis
apartenența la Homo este incertă
1.900 Kenya 700 2 situri 1972/1986
H. gautengensis
de asemenea clasificat ca H. habilis
1.900–600 Africa de Sud 100 cm 3 indivizi[2] 2010/2010
H. erectus 1.900–140

[3][4][5]

Africa, Eurasia 180 cm 60 kg 850 (început) – 1.100 (mai târziu) multe[6] 1891/1892
H. ergaster
Africa H. erectus
1.800–1.300[7] Africa de Est și de Sud 700–850 multe 1949/1975
H. antecessor
de asemenea clasificat ca H. heidelbergensis
1.200–800 Europa de Vest 175 cm 90 kg 1.000 2 situri 1994/1997
H. heidelbergensis 600–300[8] Europa, Africa 180 cm 90 kg 1.100–1.400 multe 1907/1908
H. cepranensis
o singură fosilă, posibil H. erectus
c. 450[9] Italia 1.000 1 capac de craniu 1994/2003
H. rhodesiensis
de asemenea clasificat ca H. heidelbergensis sau o subspecie de H. sapiens
c. 300 Zambia 1.300 una singură sau foarte puține 1921/1921
H. naledi c. 300[10] Africa de Sud 150 cm 45 kg 450 15 indivizi 2013/2015
H. sapiens
(oameni moderni din punct de vedere anatomic)
300–prezent[11] la nivel mondial 150–190 cm 50–100 kg 950–1.800 —/1758
H. neanderthalensis
posibil o subspecie a H. sapiens
240–40[12] Europa, Asia de Vest 170 cm 55-70 kg (robust) 1.200–1.900 multe 1829/1864
H. floresiensis
clasificare incertă
190–50 Indonezia 100 cm 25 kg 400 7 indivizi 2003/2004
H. tsaichangensis
posibil H. erectus
c. 100[13] Taiwan 1 individ 2008(?)/2015
Denisova hominin
posibil subspecie a H. sapiens sau hibrid
40 Siberia 2 situri 2000/2010[14]
Oamenii din peștera Căprioara Roșie
posibil subspecie a H. sapiens sau hibrid
15–12[15] China de Sud-Vest foarte puține
H. luzonensis
c. 67[16][17] Filipine 3 indivizi 2007/2019
  1. ^ Confirmed H. habilis fossils are dated to between 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago. This date range overlaps with the emergence of Homo erectus. Schrenk, Friedemann; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy (). „The Earliest Putative Homo Fossils”. În Henke, Winfried; Tattersall, Ian. Handbook of Paleoanthropology. 1. In collaboration with Thorolf Hardt. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 1611–1631. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-33761-4_52. ISBN 978-3-540-32474-4.  DiMaggio, Erin N.; Campisano, Christopher J.; Rowan, John; et al. (). „Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia”. Science. 347 (6228): 1355–1359. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1355D. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25739409.  Hominins with "proto-Homo" traits may have lived as early as 2.8 million years ago, as suggested by a fossil jawbone classified as transitional between Australopithecus and Homo discovered in 2015.
  2. ^ Curnoe, Darren (iunie 2010). „A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. nov.)”. HOMO – Journal of Comparative Human Biology. 61 (3): 151–177. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.04.002. ISSN 0018-442X. PMID 20466364.  A species proposed in 2010 based on the fossil remains of three individuals dated between 1.9 and 0.6 million years ago. The same fossils were also classified as H. habilis, H. ergaster or Australopithecus by other anthropologists.
  3. ^ Haviland, William A.; Walrath, Dana; Prins, Harald E.L.; McBride, Bunny (). Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge (ed. 8th). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-495-38190-7. H. erectus may have appeared some 2 million years ago. Fossils dated to as much as 1.8 million years ago have been found both in Africa and in Southeast Asia, and the oldest fossils by a narrow margin (1.85 to 1.77 million years ago) were found in the Caucasus, so that it is unclear whether H. erectus emerged in Africa and migrated to Eurasia, or if, conversely, it evolved in Eurasia and migrated back to Africa.
  4. ^ Ferring, R.; Oms, O.; Agusti, J.; Berna, F.; Nioradze, M.; Shelia, T.; Tappen, M.; Vekua, A.; Zhvania, D.; Lordkipanidze, D. (). „Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85–1.78 Ma”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (26): 10432–10436. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10810432F. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106638108. PMC 3127884Accesibil gratuit. PMID 21646521.  Homo erectus soloensis, found in Java, is considered the latest known survival of H. erectus.
  5. ^ Formerly dated to as late as 50,000 to 40,000 years ago, a 2011 study pushed back the date of its extinction of H. e. soloensis to 143,000 years ago at the latest, more likely before 550,000 years ago. Indriati E, Swisher CC III, Lepre C, Quinn RL, Suriyanto RA, et al. 2011 The Age of the 20 Meter Solo River Terrace, Java, Indonesia and the Survival of Homo erectus in Asia.PLoS ONE 6(6): e21562. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.
  6. ^ Now also included in H. erectus are Peking Man (formerly Sinanthropus pekinensis) and Java Man (formerly Pithecanthropus erectus). H. erectus is now grouped into various subspecies, including Homo erectus erectus, Homo erectus yuanmouensis, Homo erectus lantianensis, Homo erectus nankinensis, Homo erectus pekinensis, Homo erectus palaeojavanicus, Homo erectus soloensis, Homo erectus tautavelensis, Homo erectus georgicus. The distinction from descendant species such as Homo ergaster, Homo floresiensis, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and indeed Homo sapiens is not entirely clear.
  7. ^ Hazarika, Manjil (). Homo erectus/ergaster and Out of Africa: Recent Developments in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology” (PDF). EAA Summer School eBook. 1. European Anthropological Association. pp. 35–41.  "Intensive Course in Biological Anthrpology, 1st Summer School of the European Anthropological Association, 16–30 June, 2007, Prague, Czech Republic"
  8. ^ The type fossil is Mauer 1, dated to ca. 0.6 million years ago. The transition from H. heidelbergensis to H. neanderthalensis between 300 and 243 thousand years ago is conventional, and makes use of the fact that there is no known fossil in this period. Examples of H. heidelbergensis are fossils found at Bilzingsleben (also classified as Homo erectus bilzingslebensis).
  9. ^ Muttoni, Giovanni; Scardia, Giancarlo; Kent, Dennis V.; Swisher, Carl C.; Manzi, Giorgio (). „Pleistocene magnetochronology of early hominin sites at Ceprano and Fontana Ranuccio, Italy”. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 286 (1–2): 255–268. Bibcode:2009E&PSL.286..255M. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.06.032. 
  10. ^ Dirks, P.; et al. (). „The age of Homo naledi and associated sediments in the Rising Star Cave, South Africa”. eLife. 6: e24231. doi:10.7554/eLife.24231. PMID 28483040.  Parametru necunoscut |doi-access= ignorat (ajutor)
  11. ^ The age of H. sapiens has long been assumed to be close to 200,000 years, but since 2017 there have been a number of suggestions extending this time to has high as 300,000 years. In 2017, fossils found in Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) suggest that Homo sapiens may have speciated by as early as 315,000 years ago. Callaway, Ewan (). „Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species' history”. Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22114. Accesat în .  Genetic evidence has been adduced for an age of roughly 270,000 years. Posth, Cosimo; et al. (). „Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals”. Nature Communications. 8: 16046. Bibcode:2017NatCo...816046P. doi:10.1038/ncomms16046. PMC 5500885Accesibil gratuit. PMID 28675384. 
  12. ^ Bischoff, James L.; Shamp, Donald D.; Aramburu, Arantza; et al. (martie 2003). „The Sima de los Huesos Hominids Date to Beyond U/Th Equilibrium (>350 kyr) and Perhaps to 400–500 kyr: New Radiometric Dates”. Journal of Archaeological Science. 30 (3): 275–280. doi:10.1006/jasc.2002.0834. ISSN 0305-4403.  The first humans with "proto-Neanderthal traits" lived in Eurasia as early as 0.6 to 0.35 million years ago (classified as H. heidelbergensis, also called a chronospecies because it represents a chronological grouping rather than being based on clear morphological distinctions from either H. erectus or H. neanderthalensis). There is a fossil gap in Europe between 300 and 243 kya, and by convention, fossils younger than 243 kya are called "Neanderthal". D. Dean; J.-J. Hublin; R. Holloway; R. Ziegler (). „On the phylogenetic position of the pre-Neandertal specimen from Reilingen, Germany”. Journal of Human Evolution. 34 (5). pp. 485–508. doi:10.1006/jhev.1998.0214. 
  13. ^ younger than 450 kya, either between 190–130 or between 70–10 kya. Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T.; Grün, Rainer; Matsu’ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong (). „The first archaic Homo from Taiwan”. Nature Communications. 6: 6037. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6E6037C. doi:10.1038/ncomms7037. PMC 4316746Accesibil gratuit. PMID 25625212. 
  14. ^ provisional names Homo sp. Altai or Homo sapiens ssp. Denisova.
  15. ^ Bølling-Allerød warming period; Curnoe, D.; et al. (). Caramelli, David, ed. „Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of southwest China Suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians”. PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e31918. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...731918C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031918. PMC 3303470Accesibil gratuit. PMID 22431968. 
  16. ^ Détroit, F.; Mijares, A. S.; Corny, J.; Daver, G.; Zanolli, C.; Dizon, E.; Robles, E.; Grün, R.; Piper, P. J. (). „A new species of Homo from the Late Pleistocene of the Philippines”. Nature. 568 (7751): 181–186. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1067-9. 
  17. ^ Zimmer, Carl (). „A New Human Species Once Lived in This Philippine Cave - Archaeologists in Luzon Island have turned up the bones of a distantly related species, Homo luzonensis, further expanding the human family tree”. The New York Times. Accesat în .