Cerneala este un amestec lichid de substanțe, variat colorat, care conține uleiuri sicative, uleiuri polimerizate, albumine și coloranți, folosită pentru scris, tipărit, ștampilat și gravat.

Sticle cu cerneală din Germania
Trei călimări cu cerneală și un stilou cu peniță


  • "Think Ink!" by Sharon J. Huntington, Christian Science Monitor, 21 septembrie 2004, retrieved 17 ianuarie 2006.
  • "A History of Technology and Invention" by Maurice Audin, page 630.
  • Ainsworth, Mitchell, C., "Inks and Their Composition and Manufacture," Charles Griffin and Company Ltd, 1904.
  • Martín-Gil J, Ramos-Sánchez MC, Martín-Gil FJ and José-Yacamán M. "Chemical composition of a fountain pen ink". Journal of Chemical Education, 2006, 83, 1476–78
  • Banerji, Sures Chandra (1989). A Companion to Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0063-X.
  • Sircar, D.C. (1996).Indian epigraphy. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1166-6.
  • N.a. (martie 2000), „Bach Scores Turning to Dust in German Library”, American Libraries: 24–25 
  • Barrow, W.J. (), Manuscripts and Documents: Their Deterioration and Restoration, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, ISBN 0813904080 
  • Reißland, Birgit; de Groot, Suzan (), „Ink Corrosion: Comparison of the Currently Used Aqueous Treatments for Paper Objects”, Preprint from the 9th International Congress of IADA, pp. 121–129 
  • Rouchon-Quillet, V.; Bernard, J.; Wattiaux, A.; Fournes, L.; et al. (), „The Impact of Gallic Acid on Iron Gall Ink Corrosion”, Applied Physics A, 79 (2): 389–392, doi:10.1007/s00339-004-2541-1 
  • Waters, C.E. (), Inks, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, United States Government Printing Office 
  • Cueppers, Christoph (1989). "On the Manufacture of Ink." Ancient Nepal - Journal of the Department of Archaeology, Number 113, August–September 1989, pp. 1–7. [The Tibetan text and translation of a section of the work called, Bzo gnas nyer mkho'i za ma tog by 'Jam-mgon 'Ju Mi-pham-rgya-mtsho (1846–1912) describing various traditional Tibetan techniques of making inks from different sources of soot, and from earth, puffballs, dung, ser-sha - a yellow fungus, and the fruit of tsi dra ka (Ricinus communis).]

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