Deschide meniul principal

Industria automobilistică

gama de organizații asociate cu autovehicule, cum ar fi automobile, camioane și motociclete

Industria automobilistică este o gamă largă de companii și organizații implicate în proiectarea, dezvoltarea, producerea și comercializarea autovehiculelor.[1] Este unul din cele mai importante sectoare economice după venit. Industria automobilistică nu include industriile dedicate întreținerii automobilelor după livrarea lor la utilizatorul final, cum ar fi atelierele de reparații auto și stațiile de alimentare cu carburanți.

Uzina de automobile Thomas B. Jeffery din Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
Linia de asamblare a Citroënului în 1918
CEO ai companiilor automobilistice majore alături de cancelarul german Angela Merkel la Electromobility Summit 2013 în Berlin. F.r.t.l.: Neumann (Opel), Varin (PSA), Zetsche (Daimler), Wan Gang (China)

Producția mondială de autovehiculeModificare

Decenii întregi Statele Unite au condus în topul producției mondiale de automobile. În 1929, înainte de Marea depresie, în lume existau 32.028.500 de automobile în uz, iar industria auto din SUA a produs circa 90% din ele. La acel moment SUA avea în medie o mașină la 4,87 persoane.[2] După cel de-al Doilea Război Mondial, SUA deținea circa 3/4 din producția auto mondială. În 1980 SUA a fost depășită de Japonia, dar a redevenit lider în 1994. În 2006, Japonia a întrecut SUA la limită în producția de automobile și a deținut această poziție până în 2009, când China a urcat în top cu 13,8 milioane de unități. Cu un total 18,4 milioane de unități în 2011, China a produs un număr de automobile mai mult decât dublu în comparație cu SUA care a fost a doua cu 8,7 milioane de unități, în timp ce Japonia s-a clasat pe locul trei cu 8,4 milioane de unități.[3]

După anModificare

Producția globală de autovehicule

(mașini și vehicule comerciale)

Am Producție Schimbare Sursa
1997 54.434.000   [4]
1998 52.987.000 -2.7% [4]
1999 56.258.892 6.2% [5]
2000 58.374.162 3.8% [6]
2001 56.304.925 -3.5% [7]
2002 58.994.318 4.8% [8]
2003 60.663.225 2.8% [9]
2004 64.496.220 6.3% [10]
2005 66.482.439 3.1% [11]
2006 69.222.975 4.1% [12]
2007 73.266.061 5.8% [13]
2008 70.520.493 -3.7% [14]
2009 61.791.868 -12.4% [15]
2010 77.857.705 26.0% [16]
2011 79.989.155 3.1% [17]
2012 84.141.209 5.3% [18]


După țarăModificare

După producătorModificare

Clasamentul producătorilor după producție, 2012[19]

# Grup Total Mașini LCV HCV Heavy Bus
1 Toyota 10,104,424 8,381,968 1,448,107 268,377 5,972
2 GM 9,285,425 6,608,567 2,658,612 7,558 10,688
3 Volkswagen 9,254,742 8,576,964 486,544 169,064 22,170
4 Hyundai 7,126,413 6,761,074 279,579 70,290 15,470
5 Ford 5,595,483 3,123,340 2,394,221 77,922
6 Nissan 4,889,379 3,830,954 1,022,974 35,451
7 Honda 4,110,857 4,078,376 32,481
8 PSA 2,911,764 2,554,059 357,705
9 Suzuki 2,893,602 2,483,721 409,881
10 Renault 2,676,226 2,302,769 373,457
11 Chrysler 2,371,427 656,892 1,702,235 12,300
12 Daimler AG 2,195,152 1,455,650 257,496 450,622 31,384
13 FIAT 2,127,295 1,501,979 498,984 85,513 40,819
14 BMW 2,065,477 2,065,216 261
15 SAIC 1,783,548 1,523,398 190,848 67,805 1,497
16 Tata 1,241,239 744,067 314,399 165,171 17,602
17 Mazda 1,189,283 1,097,661 91,622
18 Dongfeng Motor 1,137,950 539,845 245,641 337,545 14,919
19 Mitsubishi 1,109,731 980,001 127,435 2,295
20 Changan 1,063,721 835,334 166,727 59,978 1,682
21 Geely 922,906 922,906
22 Fuji 753,320 734,959 18,361
23 BAIC 720,828 83,033 285,081 348,659 4,055
24 FAW 706,012 480,443 52,983 168,793 3,793
25 Great Wall 624,426 487,704 136,722
26 Mahindra 606,418 429,101 173,083 3,461 773
27 Isuzu 600,470 32,309 565,617 2,544
28 Chery 563,951 550,565 13,386
29 Avtovaz 553,232 553,232
30 Brilliance 489,770 231,527 231,862 26,381
31 JAC 476,356 200,278 114,864 145,811 15,403
32 BYD 455,444 455,444
33 Chonhqing Lifan 272,657 183,750 24,035 64,872
34 Volvo 234,680 224,000 10,680
35 Proton 162,455 134,934 27,521
36 China National Heavy Duty Truck 127,792 1,224 125,792 776
37 Paccar 125,336 125,336
38 GAZ 125,319 88,899 21,561 14,859
39 Ashok Leyland 117,738 30,776 61,519 25,443
40 Hunan Jiangnan Automobile Manufacturing Co. 117,051 117,051
41 GAC Group 114,157 87,408 25,611 1,138
42 Shannxi 86,283 8,044 166 77,808 265
43 Porsche 86,083 86,083
44 Soueast (Fujian) 85,515 81,512 4,003
45 Navistar 83,371 72,005 11,366
46 Xiamen King Long 78,226 36,451 41,775
47 UAZ 70,434 32,469 37,965
48 Tangjun Ou Ling 69,167 16,459 52,708
49 Hebei Zhongxing 63,221 4,955 58,266
50 Sichuan Nanjun 60,743 18,296 41,602 845

OICA[20] defines these entries as follows:

  • Passenger cars are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the transport of passengers, and comprising no more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat.
  • Light commercial vehicles (LCV) are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the carriage of goods. Mass given in tons (metric tons) is used as a limit between light commercial vehicles and heavy trucks. This limit depends on national and professional definitions and varies between 3.5 and 7 tons. Minibuses, derived from light commercial vehicles, are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat and having a maximum mass between 3.5 and 7 tons.
  • Heavy trucks (HCV) are vehicles intended for the carriage of goods. Maximum authorised mass is over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tons) of light commercial vehicles. They include tractor vehicles designed for towing semi-trailers.
  • Buses and coaches are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat, and having a maximum mass over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tones) of light commercial vehicles.

Topul grupurilor de producători auto după volumModificare

Tabelul de mai jos prezintă cele mai mari grupuri de producători de autovehicule din lume, împreună cu mărcile produse de fiecare. Tabelul prezintă situația de la finele anului 2011 conform International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[21]

Marcă Țara de origine Ownership Piețe de desfacere
1. Toyota Motor Corporation (  Japan)
Daihatsu   Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America
Hino   Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America and South America
Lexus   Division South East Asia, Japan, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Panama, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
Ranz   Joint-venture China
Scion   Division United States, Canada
Toyota   Division Global, except Iran
2. General Motors Company (  United States)
Baojun   Joint venture China
Buick   Division United States, Canada, Mexico, China, Israel
Cadillac   Division North America, Europe, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea
Chevrolet   Division Global, except Australia, New Zealand
GMC   Division North America, Middle East(except Israel)
Holden   Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
HSV   Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Jie Fang   Joint venture China
UzDaewoo   Joint venture Central Asia, Russia
Wuling   Joint venture China
3. Volkswagen Group AG (  Germany)
Audi   Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Bentley   Subsidiary Global
Bugatti   Subsidiary Global
Lamborghini   Subsidiary Global
Ducati   Subsidiary Global
MAN   Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, India
Porsche   Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Scania   Subsidiary Global
SEAT   Subsidiary Europe, South America, Africa, Middle East, China, Mexico
Škoda   Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Central America (including Dominican Republic), South America, Northern and western Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Volkswagen   Subsidiary Global
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles   Subsidiary Europe, Central America, South America, Australia, China
4. Hyundai Motor Group (  South Korea)
Hyundai   Division Global, except Mexico
Kia   Subsidiary Global
5. Ford Motor Company (  United States)
Ford   Division Global
FPV   Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Lincoln   Division United States, Canada, Mexico, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China
Troller   Subsidiary South America, Africa
6. Nissan (  Japan)
Datsun   Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa
Infiniti   Subsidiary Global, except Japan, Korea, South America and Africa
Nissan   Division Global
Venucia   Joint venture China
7. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Abarth   Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Alfa Romeo   Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan and the Philippines
Chrysler   Subsidiary Global, except Europe (excluding UK and Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Dodge   Subsidiary Global, except Europe, Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Ferrari   Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
Fiat   Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
Fiat Professional   Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada
Jeep   Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Lancia   Subsidiary Europe (except UK and Ireland, Cyprus, Denmark, Norway, Iceland & East Europe)
Maserati   Subsidiary Global
Ram   Subsidiary United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Middle East, Peru
SRT   Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
Zastava Trucks   Subsidiary Europe
Tofaș   Joint Venture Europe
8. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. (  France)
Citroën   Subsidiary Europe, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia (except India, Pakistan and Bangladesh)
Peugeot   Subsidiary Global, except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Opel   Subsidiary Europe (except UK), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile
Vauxhall   Subsidiary United Kingdom
9. Honda Motor Company (  Japan)
Acura   Division United States, Canada, Mexico, China
Everus   Joint venture China
Honda   Division Global
10. Renault (  France)
Dacia   Subsidiary Europe, Middle East, Northern Africa
Renault   Division Global, except United States, Canada, Korea, Africa (excluding Northern Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa)
Renault Samsung   Subsidiary South Korea, Chile
11. Suzuki Motor Corporation (  Japan)
Suzuki   Division Global, except USA, Canada and Korea
Maruti Suzuki   Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
12. BMW AG (  Germany)
BMW   Division Global
MINI   Division Global
Rolls-Royce   Subsidiary Global
13. Daimler AG (  Germany)
BharatBenz   Division India
Denza   Joint venture China
Freightliner   Division North America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Master   Subsidiary Pakistan
Mercedes-Benz   Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso   Subsidiary Global
Setra   Division Europe, Asia, USA
Smart   Division Global
Thomas Built   Subsidiary North America
Western Star   Subsidiary North America, Australia, New Zealand
14. Mazda Motor Corporation (  Japan)
Mazda   Division Global, except Korea
15. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (  Japan)
Mitsubishi   Division Global, except Korea
Ralliart   Subsidiary Global, Except Korea
16. Dongfeng Motor Corporation (  China)
Fengshen   Division China
Venucia   Joint venture China
17. Tata Motors, Ltd (  India)
Hispano   Subsidiary Europe
Jaguar   Subsidiary Global
Land Rover   Subsidiary Global
Tata   Division India, Ghana, Italy, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Nigeria, Australia
Tata Daewoo   Subsidiary South Korea, Pakistan
18. Geely Automobile (  China)
Englon   Division China
Emgrand   Division China, United Kingdom, Turkey
Gleagle   Division China
Geely   Division China, Taiwan, Russia, North Africa, Middle East, South America, South Africa, Australia, Turkey
Maple   Division China
Volvo (Cars)   Subsidiary Global
19. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd (  China)
BAW   Division China
Foton   Subsidiary China, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, South America, India
20. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd (  China)
Chana   Division China, Taiwan, South Africa, Europe
Hafei   Subsidiary China
Changhe   Division China, Venezuela
Tiger Truck   Subsidiary United States, Canada
21. SAIPA (  Iran)
Pars Khodro   Subsidiary Iran
SAIPA   Division Iran, Syria
SAIPA Diesel   Subsidiary Iran
Zamyad   Subsidiary Iran
22. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd (  China)
Chery   Division China, South East Asia, Russia, South Africa, South America, Australia
Qoros   Joint-Venture China, Europe, Israel
Riich   Division China
Rely   Division China
23. OAO AvtoVAZ (  Russia)
Lada   Division Europe (except United Kingdom, Portugal and Malta), Central Asia
VIS   Division Russia
24. First Automotive Group Corporation (  China)
Besturn   Division China
Freewind   Subsidiary China
Haima   Subsidiary China
Hongqi   Division China
Jiaxing   Subsidiary China
Jie Fang   Joint venture China
Vita   Subsidiary China
Xiali   Subsidiary China
25. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd (  Japan)
Subaru   Division Global, except Mexico and Korea
26. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd (  China)
Great Wall   Division China, Taiwan, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia, Europe, Middle East
27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd (  Japan)
Isuzu   Division Global, except Brazil and Korea
28. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd (  China)
JAC   Division China, Africa, Brazil
29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd (  China)
Brilliance   Division China, North Africa
Jinbei   Subsidiary China
30. SAIC Motor (  China)
Baojun   Joint venture China
Maxus   Division China, Australia, South Africa, United Kingdom, Chile, Malaysia
MG Motor   Subsidiary China, United Kingdom, South America, Australia
Roewe   Division China, Belarus
Soyat   Division China
Yuejin   Division China
Wuling   Joint venture China
31. BYD Auto (  China)
BYD   Division China, Taiwan, Russia, United States, Canada
Denza   Joint venture China
32. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd (  India)
Mahindra   Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America, Australia
REVA   Division India
SsangYong   Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
33. AB Volvo (  Sweden)
Mack   Subsidiary United States, Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Australia
NovaBus   Subsidiary North America
Prevost   Subsidiary North America
Renault Trucks   Subsidiary Global, except Japan, United States and Canada
UD Trucks   Subsidiary Global
Volvo Trucks   Subsidiary Global
35. Iran Khodro Company (  Iran)
Iran Khodoro   Division Middle East,Northern Africa, Russia, Belarus, Central Asia, China, Venezuela
IKCO Diesel   Division Middle East, Northern and Western Africa
36. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd (  China)
Lifan   Division China, Taiwan, Russia, Middle East, South America
37. Proton Holdings, Bhd (  Malaysia)
Lotus   Subsidiary Global
Proton   Division Southeast Asia, China, Australia, United Kingdom, Middle East
38. Jiangling Motors (  China)
Jiangling   Division China, Europe
39. Fujian Motors Group (  China)
Soueast   Joint-Venture China
King Long   Joint-Venture China, South East Asia, India, North America, Europe, Middle East, Australia, New Zealand
Xiamen Golden Dragon   Joint-Venture China, South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, South America
Higer Bus   Joint-Venture China,South Asia, Middle East, Africa, Russia, Eastern Europe, United States, Canada, Central America, South America
40. Kuozui Motors, Ltd (  Taiwan)
Kuozui   Subsidiary Taiwan
42. China National Heavy Duty Truck Group (  China)
Sinotruck   Division China
43. Hunan Jiangnan Automobile (  China)
Jiangnan   Division China
44. Paccar Inc. (  United States)
DAF Trucks   Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
Kenworth   Division North America, Australia
Leyland Trucks   Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
Peterbilt   Division North America
45. GAZ (  Russia)
GAZ   Division Russia, Europe, Central Asia
LiAZ   Subsidiary Russia
Ural Trucks   Division Russia
46. Shaanxi Automobile Group (  China)
Shaanxi   Division China
47. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. (  China)
Qingling   Division China
48. Ashok Leyland (  India)
Ashok Leyland   Division South Asia, Middle East, East Africa
49. Navistar International Corporation (  United States)
eStar   Division United States, Canada
IC   Subsidiary United States, Canada
International   Division North America, South America, Russia, Middle East, Egypt, South Africa
??. CNH Industrial N.V. (  the Netherlands)
Defence Vehicles   Subsidiary Europe
Heuliez Bus   Subsidiary Europe
Iveco   Subsidiary Global
Iveco Astra   Subsidiary Europe
Iveco Bus   Subsidiary Global, except North America
Magirus   Subsidiary Global, except North America
??. Oshkosh Corporation (  United States)
Oshkosh   Division USA, Canada, China
??. Yulon Motor (  Taiwan)
Luxgen   Division Taiwan, China, Oman
Tobe   Division Taiwan
??. Shandong Kaima (  China)
Kaima   Division China
Jubao   Division China
Aofeng   Division China
??. Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group Co Ltd (  China)
Changfeng   Subsidiary China, Russia, Middle East, Africa
Everus   Joint venture China
Gonow   Subsidiary China
Trumpchi   Division China
??. Micro (cars) (  Sri Lanka)
Micro (cars)   Division Sri Lanka
??. Rongcheng Hawtai Automobile (  China)
Hawtai   Division China
??. Caterpillar Inc. (  United States)
CAT   Division United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand

NoteModificare

Legături externeModificare